Migration and Immigration to the Columbia River Basin

Overview

In this lesson students will examine the history of immigrants and migrants in the Pacific Northwest. Students will research documents and images in the digital archive of the Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project to learn about the migration and settlement patterns of various ethnic groups that settled in the region. Students will learn how to research and interpret primary sources in on-line databases, develop oral and writing skills, and learn how to organize a coherent presentation to report their findings to the class.

Historical Understandings

History, U.S. history, and Pacific Northwest history:

The student examines and understands major ideas, eras, themes, developments, turning points, chronology, and cause-effect relationships in the United States, the world, and the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.


Student Learning Standards

Washington

Social Studies: History Essential Academic Learning Requirements

1. The student examines and understands major ideas, eras, themes, developments, turning points, chronology, and cause-effect relationships in United States, world, and Washington State history.

To meet this standard, the student will:

Grades 8-10

1.1. Understand and analyze historical time and chronology.


Benchmark 1 -- Grade 5 Benchmark 2 -- Grade 8 Benchmark 3 -- Grade 10
  1.1.2a Group events and individuals by broadly defined historical eras and develop related timelines; compare and contrast different cultural measurements of time. 1.1.3a. Group events and individuals by broadly defined historical eras and use timelines to identify and explain patterns of historical continuity and change in a succession of related events; compare and contrast different cultural perceptions of time.
  1.1.2b Using evidence for support identify, analyze, and explain possible causal factors contributing to given historical events. 1.1.3b. Compare and evaluate competing historical narratives, analyze multiple perspectives, and challenge arguments of historical inevitability.



1.2 Understand events, trends, individuals, and movements shaping the United States, world, and Washington State history.

United States History

Benchmark 1 -- Grade 5 Benchmark 2 -- Grade 8 Benchmark 3 -- Grade 10
   US1.2.2 Identify and analyze major issues, people, and events in U.S. history from the Revolution to 1900 including:
- Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization (1870-1900)
 

Washington State History

Benchmark 1 -- Grade 5 Benchmark 2 -- Grade 8 Benchmark 3 -- Grade 10
   WA1.2.2 Identify and analyze the contributions of the following eras in the development of Washington State:
-The Great Depression and World War II (1930-1945)
- Post World War II domestic political, social, and economic issues (1945-1980)
- Contemporary Washington (1980-present)
Note:
The essential learnings for Washington State History are Completed for most students at the second benchmark


1.3 Examine the influence of culture on United States, world, and Washington State history

Benchmark 1 -- Grade 5 Benchmark 2 -- Grade 8 Benchmark 3 -- Grade 10
  1.3.2 Examine the development of different cultures in Washington State, U.S., and world history. 1.3.3. Examine and analyze how the contributions of various cultural groups influence society.

2. The Student understands the origin and impact of ideas and technological developments
on history.

To meet this standard, the student will:

2.1 Compare and contrast ideas in different places, time periods, and cultures, and examine the interrelationships between ideas, change, and conflict.

(cross reference with the themes and topics outlined under the United States, world, and Washington State history headings)

Benchmark 1 -- Grade 5 Benchmark 2 -- Grade 8 Benchmark 3— Grade 10
  2.1.2 Explain the origin and historical context of major ideas and their impact on societies. 2.1.3. Compare and analyze major ideas in different places, times, and cultures, and how those ideas have brought about continuity, change, or conflict.

Grades 11-12: U.S. History

1. The student examines and understands major ideas, eras, themes, developments, turning points, chronology, and cause-effect relationships in United States, world, and Washington State history.

To meet this standard, the student will:

1.1 Understand and analyze historical time and chronology. 1.1.3a Group events and individuals by broadly defined historical eras and use timelines to identify and explain patterns of historical continuity and change in a succession of related events; compare and contrast different cultural perceptions of time. 1.2 Understand events, trends, individuals and movements shaping United States, world, and Washington State history.

2. The student understands the origin and impact of ideas and technological developments on history.

To meet this standard, the student will:

2.1 Compare and contrast ideas in different places, time periods, and cultures, and examine the interrelationships between ideas, change, and conflict. 2.1.3 Compare and analyze major ideas in different places, times, and cultures, and how those ideas have brought about continuity, change, or conflict.

2.2 Understand how ideas and technological developments influence people, culture, and environment.


Idaho

Middle Grades

476. Migration and Immigration

Standard -- The student will: Content Knowledge and Skills Samples of Applications
01. Understand the role of
Migration and Immigration of people in the development of the United States.
a. Analyze the religious, political, and economic motives of voluntary immigrants from different parts of Europe who came to North America. . i. Using historical information, select a European country and write a skit demonstrating why a family should immigrate to America.
ii. Develop a historical outline map indicating where various Europeans settled in North America and their reasons for this settlement.

  c. Describe the history, interactions, and contributions of the various groups of people that have lived and migrated throughout North America. i. Make a chart listing various migrating groups showing where they settled, reasons for moving, and the development of communities as a consequence of their migration.
ii. Write a letter to family members left behind in the East convincing them to journey on the Oregon Trail and join the rest of the family in Oregon. Use historical research as the basis for this letter.

Grades 9-12

495. Migration and Immigration

Standard -- The student will: Content Knowledge and Skills Samples of Applications
01. Understand the role of
Migration and Immigration of people in the development of the United States.
a. Identify motives for immigration in and to the United States. i. Compare the motives of 19th century Irish immigrants to Hispanic immigrants in the 20th century.
  b. Analyze the legal, political, social and economic changes in the status of voluntary immigrant groups. i. Peruse both current and frontier newspapers for changing attitudes toward immigrant groups.
ii. Trace the legislative history of American immigration.


Oregon

HISTORY: Relate significant events and eras in United States and world history to past and present issues and developments.

Common Curriculum Goals
Content Standards Benchmark 3
(Grade 8)
Certificate of Initial Mastery


HISTORICAL SKILLS
Interpret and reconstruct chronological relationships.

Understand, represent, and interpret chronological relationships in history Represent and interpret data and chronological relationships from history, using timelines and narratives.

Reconstruct, interpret, and represent the chronology of significant events, developments, and narratives from history

    Identify and create chronologies of events.
Compare and contrast historical interpretations.

Reconstruct the chronological order of significant events related to historical developments.
Interpret the relationship of events occurring over time.
Interpret timelines, charts and graphs illustrating chronological relationships.

Analyze cause and effect relationships, including multiple causalities.

Identify and analyze cause and effect relationships in history.

Distinguish between cause and effect relationships and events that happen or occur concurrently or sequentially. Compare and contrast institutions and ideas in history, noting cause and effect relationships.


Understand, recognize, and interpret change and continuity over time. Interpret and represent chronological relationships and patterns of change and continuity over time. Identify and give examples of chronological patterns and recognize them in related events over time. Recognize and interpret continuity and/or change with respect to particular historical developments in the 20th century.

U.S History

Common Curriculum Goals
Content Standards Benchmark III
Certificate of Initial Mastery


U.S. HISTORY
Understand and interpret events, issues, and developments within and across eras of U.S. history.

Understand the importance and lasting influence of individuals, issues, events, people, and developments in U.S. history. Understand how individuals, issues, and events changed or significantly influenced the course of U.S. history post American Revolution through 1900.

Understand how individuals, issues, and events changed or significantly influenced the course of U.S. history after 1900.


 STATE & LOCAL HISTORY
Understand and interpret the history of the state of Oregon.
 Understand and interpret events, issues, and developments in Oregon history. Understand how various groups of people were affected by events and developments in Oregon state history. Understand the causes, characteristics, and impact of political, economic, and social developments in Oregon state history.

 

 

Understand the interactions and contributions of the various people and cultures that have lived in or migrated to the area that is now Oregon from post-American Revolution until 1900. Understand the interactions and contributions of the various people and cultures that have lived in or migrated to the area that is now Oregon after 1900.

Understand and interpret events, issues, and developments in the history of one’s family, local community, and culture. Understand and interpret events, issues, and developments in the history of one’s family, local community, and culture. Understand the lasting influence of events and developments in local history. Understand the causes, characteristics and impact, and lasting influence of political, economic, and social developments in local history.


Student Outcomes/Performances

After completion of this lesson students will:

  • understand why immigrants left their home countries and settled in the Pacific Northwest;
  • know how these groups earned their livelihood, how and why they built ethnic communities, what relationships they built with other peoples in the region; and how they overcame problems and challenges they encountered.
  • know and appreciate the contributions of the various ethnic groups to the economic and social development of the Pacific Northwest;
  • acquire sufficient knowledge to participate in informed discussions and presentations with classmates, teachers and others about the immigration experiences of the various ethnic groups of the Pacific Northwest.

Activities and Procedure

This lesson requires five fifty-minute class periods for grades 11 and 12 but can be condensed to three periods for students below grade 11.

Activity One (first class period of this lesson):

  1. Present an overview of the lesson and an historical sketch of the role of immigration in the history of the United States and the Pacific Northwest. (fifteen minutes)
  2. Facilitate a class discussion where students share with the class what they know about the history of immigration in the United States and the Pacific Northwest. (fifteen minutes)
  3. Divide students in groups of three (the number of students in each group can vary depending on class size and teacher preference). Hand out a list of the ethnic groups represented in the historical overviews in the website of the Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project. Allow ten minutes for each student group to discuss and select one ethnic group to study from the list.
  4. In the remaining time hand out and review with students the study guide questions that appear below.

Activity Two (second and third class periods of this lesson):

In this activity students will conduct research on the migration/immigration history of the ethnic group they selected.

  1. Allow ten minutes to review with students the lesson overview, learning objectives, and the study guide questions.
  2. Assign student groups to their computer workstations and have them spend the remainder of the class periods researching materials for their corresponding ethnic groups in the Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project digital archive.

Activity Three (fourth class period)

In this activity student groups will plan and organize their presentation to the class based on their research of the immigrant/ethnic group they studied. During this activity the teacher will spend time with each student group to serve as a resource. This activity will require one additional hour of group work outside class time, assigned as homework, for each group to work independently to refine and finalize their presentation to the class. .

Activity Four (fifth class period)

In this activity student groups present their oral reports to the class. Allow ten minutes of this period for a class discussion in which students compare and contrast the immigration experiences of the ethnic groups studied. .


Closure/ Extension

Have each student write a short essay that compares and contrasts her/his family migration/immigration history to that of the group he/she studied. For this activity students interview their parents, grandparents, other relatives, and/or long-time family friends familiar with the student’s family history. Students will use information from the interviews and the Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project digital archive to write the essay

Student Learning Assessment

To measure performance students are required to keep a group project portfolio that includes research notes, a bibliography of documents and images reviewed in the Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project digital archive, a description that details the division of labor between group members, and an outline of the group’s class presentation. Individual students are also required to keep a portfolio of their preparation work for the essay they are required to write. The portfolio may include planning and research notes, interview notes, an outline of the essay, and the final draft of the essay.

Study Guide Questions

In the century from 1850 to 1950 millions of immigrants from several counties came to the United States. Many settled and built communities in the states of Idaho, Oregon and Washington. These peoples played significant roles and made lasting contributions to the economic and social development of the Pacific Northwest. Their experiences were similar in some ways but differed significantly in other ways.

The following questions will guide students as they research the history of immigration/migration in the Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Digital Archive. Students will research the archive for information to answer the questions about the ethnic groups they decide to study. Students will take notes as they review materials in the archive about the group they selected for study, and use their notes to write a paragraph to answer each question.

1) Why and when did these peoples decide to immigrate to the United States and settle in the Pacific Northwest? Did they cluster in certain parts of the region? If so, why?

2) How did these peoples develop communities? What challenges and problems did they experience in their efforts to find and build new homes and communities?

3) What type of work did these ethnic groups find? Did they pursue certain occupations or develop economic niches? Why?

4) How did they get along with other ethnic groups who lived in the area?

5) What contributions did these peoples make to the economic and social development of the Columbia River Basin?

6) What did you find most interesting about the group you studied?

7) What other questions can you pose to the rest of the class?

Additional Resources

American Memory, Library of Congress: http://memory.loc.gov/

Center for Columbia River History: http://www.ccrh.org/index.htm

The Best of History, U.S. History page: http://www.besthistorysites.net/USHistory_Immigration.shtml

International Migrant Workers, Oregon State Archives, Oregon State University, http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/osu/osuintro.html

The Densho Project: http://www.densho.org/

The Learning Page, Library of Congress: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/index.html

NARA’s Digital Classroom: http://www.archives.gov/digital_classroom/index.html

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